Since the collapse of analytical Marxism, no major challenge has been posed from the left to the liberal domain. As discussed in class, Karl Marx adopts the idea of distributive justice and political constrains on economic outcome.
As noted in the Chapter 2 of the paper “Property Owning Democracy, Socialism and Justice: Rawlsian and Marxist Perspectives”, Social Justice has explored the ambiguous relationship between socialism and liberalism in its modern incarnations. The author has argued that modern liberalism, provided with the economic institutions of a proprietary democracy, can refute the socialist criticisms that oppose it. It can offer adequate responses to criticism about negative rights, political rights, market mechanisms and even the importance of work. While some of the solutions offered by the liberal tradition are in fact different (sometimes better), it is obvious that “high” liberalism and socialism worry about the same problems. Building an economy to be productive, but at the same time distributing the results according to some significant theory of justice and creating the conditions for human beings to realize their full potential are the central questions facing both philosophical traditions.
The Chapter 2 of the cited paper explains that the Marxist theory of justice is centered on the concept of limited self-ownership. The author unveiled the Marxist texts to derive normative premises and to develop from them principles for a coherent theory of justice.
The second chapter gave an outline of the central thesis of the Marxist theory of justice defended in the paper. He conceptualized a limited form of self-ownership, which encompassed work but not talent and was limited by the claims others had about natural resources as well. In this way, an attempt was made to reconcile the Marxist theory of exploitation with the theory of original accumulation and the compensation deserved. At the same time, Marx’s comments on communism and the principle “To each according to his need” have been discussed. The project preferred to privilege the theory of exploitation and the premise of self-ownership derived from it on the principle of needs, understood as a principle of distribution.
Finally, it has been argued that a form of democratic socialism represents the best instance of this theory of justice.
Stoain , Valentin. (2014). Property Owning Democracy, Socialism and Justice: Rawlsian and Marxist Perspectives on the Content of Social Justice. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University. pp. 53-67.