I would like to make a reference to the Public Choice Theory. The economist Anthony Downs in 1957 postulated the idea of the Voting Paradox and then it was articulated in an equation by William H. Riker in 1968.
The Riker`s equation contained three elements:
V: The probability that the citizen will vote
B: Benefit of being the pivotal vote (the differential benefits the voter receives from her preferred candidate versus the one who is going to win if she does not vote)
P: Probability of being the pivotal vote
C: Costs of going to vote (waking up early, having to go out, driving to the polls, waiting in line)
This expression is almost the same as the one described in Chapter 7 Katian Cooperation*.
Because P*B is very small in big elections, William H. Riker and Peter Ordeshook added another variable to the equation: Duty. They argued that the feeling of civic duty was an important factor that could explain the decision to turnout.
If this is true then the millions of pesos expended in civic advertising by the Instituto Nacional Electoral would be justified. The same could be said of the effort and money expended in the SALITAM elections by the CUHE (Consejo Universitario/ Student Electoral Authority).
If these advertiments have an effect, then it may be that developing a civic culture can change our equilibirum payoffs.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. “An Economic Theory of Democracy”. Harper and Row, N.Y.
Pancs, Romans. 2017. “Lectures on Microeconomics: The Big Questions Approach”.
Riker, William H., and Peter Ordeshook. 1968. “A Theory of the Calculus of Voting.” The American Political Science Review 62(1): 25–42.
Here is one of the videos of the Electoral Authority to promote the turnout in the 2012 election.
It is in spanish with spanish subtitles. I could not find one in english.