“It is good and morally right to promote as much happiness as possible and the greatest good for the greatest number is therefore right.” (Williams 1973)
Utilitarianism is the greatest good of the greatest number. It takes into account that an action is right if it is likely to produce the best consequences compared to all the other possible actions.
However as John Rawl and Gregory Mankiw mention, utilitarianism might lead to a highly unequal distribution of utility levels, or because of the lack for popular support, alternatives to this have been proposed.
Then, we come to one of the main arguments, “how can we measure happiness and decide which action would result in the greatest happiness for everyone involved?”.
Utilitarianism would mean, not to judge the rightness or wrongness of the actions, but rather the consequences.
Then as Mankiw says, the principle of just deserts is that rewards are attached to actions, no the individuals who take these actions.
Utilitarianism provides an adequate basis for making moral decisions, as it is good and morally right to promote as much happiness as possible.